If we agree to work on this assignment today, I will send the appropriate readings very soon. Please answer the two following questions separately, with approximately 3 pages per question: 1. The clash between Western culture and African culture—sometimes depicted as a clash between ‘modernity’ and ‘tradition’—has been a recurring theme in our course this semester, in both the 19th and 20th centuries. What have you learned about the various ways Africans embraced or rejected, sought to appropriate or to refashion Western institutions, technologies, ideas or values to serve their own purposes at different moments in the continent’s modern history? 2. How would you begin to write a history of ‘violence’ as a recurrent theme in modern African history from the time of the Scramble for Africa, through the era of decolonization, and during the forty years following African independence? What key examples/cases would you select to highlight the multiple forms and functions of violence deployed by various African and ‘foreign’ actors at different moments in the continent’s history from 1880-2000, and how important do you think such violence was in achieving the goals of those actors?